Enhancing the Advance Pricing Agreement Process: APMA’s New Guidelines 

May 30, 20230


The realm of International Tax and Transfer Pricing is an ever-evolving landscape, with Tax authorities continuously seeking to enhance their processes. In line with this pursuit, the Acting Director of IRS Treaty and Transfer Pricing Operations (TTPO) recently released a noteworthy memorandum titled ‘Interim Guidance on Review and Acceptance of Advance Pricing Agreement (APA) Submissions,’ introducing significant changes that will reshape the APA process and impact Transfer Pricing compliance for multinational enterprises and Tax professionals. This comprehensive guidance introduces significant changes that are set to reshape the APA process, fundamentally influencing how businesses navigate the intricacies of Transfer Pricing compliance. In this article, it follows a closer look at the key provisions outlined in the guidance and delve into their wide-ranging implications for multinational enterprises and Tax professionals alike. 


Inclusive Approach to Prefiling Communication:  

In the past, the Advance Pricing and Mutual Agreement (APMA) division has exhibited an inclusive approach towards accepting Advance Pricing Agreement (APA) requests into the APA process. Unlike some Tax authorities in other jurisdictions that employ “gating procedures” to screen APA submissions, APMA has historically had more relaxed requirements, often necessitating limited or no prefiling communication. Prefiling memoranda were typically mandated only in specific scenarios, such as certain unilateral APA requests or cases involving complex intangibles issues, as outlined in Section 3.02(4) of Rev. Proc. 2015-41. However, with the introduction of the recent interim guidance, there are notable shifts on the horizon. This departure from previous practices will significantly impact the overall APA process and Taxpayer engagement with APMA. 


Review Process: 

The review process outlined in the Guidance encompasses both APA prefiling memoranda and APA submission requests, including renewals. The IRS emphasizes that the purpose of this guidance is not to restrict or reduce the number of APA requests accepted by APMA. Instead, its objective is to enhance the overall quality and efficiency of APMA’s APA program. By introducing an early mechanism to identify potential obstacles and explore alternative paths for achieving Tax certainty, the guidance aims to streamline the APA process and ensure timely conclusions. 


Pre-submission Review:  

As part of the guidance, APMA introduces a pre-submission review known as the Prefiling Memorandum Review. This review is available to Taxpayers who choose to submit an optional prefiling memorandum prior to their APA request. While Rev. Proc. 2015-41, section 3.02(5), acknowledges the current optional status of prefiling memoranda, the guidance suggests that APMA may recommend all APA-seeking Taxpayers to submit a prefiling memorandum in the future.  

Upon submission of the prefiling memorandum, an APMA Team Leader or Economist, along with a member from the Transfer Pricing Risk Assessment (TPRA) team, will assess the memorandum based on various criteria, including:  

  • Evaluating whether the proposed covered transactions warrant the allocation of APMA resources for engaging in and completing an APA.  
  • Verifying if the proposed APA term, including rollback years, meets the requirements of Rev. Proc. 2015-41 concerning the period of limitations for assessment.  
  • Assessing the potential for significant enhancement of Transfer Pricing compliance through negotiations with treaty partner(s) in bilateral and multilateral APA cases.  
  • Examining if the applicable international exchange agreements facilitate sufficient information exchange between Tax administrations in multilateral cases.  
  • Considering the potential impact of the proposed APA on prior Tax year or period compliance.  
  • Determining if the proposed transaction has been referred for an APA with respect to a Compliance Assurance Process (CAP) Taxpayer.  
  • Assessing whether alternative mechanisms such as the International Compliance Assurance Program (ICAP), future Transfer Pricing Practice (TPP), or joint audits may be better suited for resolving the proposed transactions.  

Notably, the suitability of other dispute resolution mechanisms will be evaluated based on factors such as the scope, materiality, and complexity of the covered transactions, their connection to jurisdictions participating in ICAP, the Taxpayer’s history of transparent and cooperative engagement with the IRS, the Taxpayer’s examination history regarding Transfer Pricing and permanent establishment issues, and the presence of common or complementary audits or issues with foreign Tax administrations.  

Upon completing the estimated four-week Prefiling Memorandum Review process, APMA, represented by a designated frontline manager (FLM), will:  

  • Notify the Taxpayer to proceed with the APA submission.  
  • Provide a recommendation for the Taxpayer to explore alternative methods for obtaining Tax certainty.  
  • Request additional details from the Taxpayer before making a decision regarding the acceptance of the APA application.  

These recommendations will be communicated orally by the FLM. 


Post-submission Evaluation:  

After submitting a comprehensive APA request, a formal evaluation will determine its acceptance into the APA program or identify an alternative workstream. This review will be conducted by the APA Submission Review Team, which includes an APMA frontline manager (FLM), an APMA Team Leader or Economist, the TPRA Manager or their designee, a TPP reviewer, and a Treaty Assistance and Interpretation Team analyst for non-Transfer Pricing treaty issues. Notably, the review process encompasses several key considerations.  

Observation: The TPP reviewer will provide a summary of the Taxpayer’s TPP examination history, if applicable, while the TPRA team will conduct a risk assessment. If no prefiling memorandum was filed, the Submission Review Team will begin its evaluation with the criteria established during the Prefiling Memorandum Review, aligning with the Guidance’s recommendation of submitting a prefiling memorandum in all situations. APMA will also evaluate the efficiency of resolving the proposed Transfer Pricing methodology (TPM) and covered transactions through an APA based on experience and examination history in the United States and the relevant foreign jurisdiction. Additionally, the prospective APA years and the presence of arbitration provisions in the relevant Tax treaty are considered among country-specific strategic factors. This raises the question of whether bilateral or multilateral APA applications involving treaties with arbitration clauses may receive preference.  

The Guidance outlines further considerations that may impact APMA’s inventory, such as whether APMA is the optimal forum within TTPO for analyzing the proposed covered transactions, including the development of facts and reliable financial data. It also considers the IRS’s interest in examining the covered transactions based on TPP’s workload selection process and whether the Transfer Pricing issues are secondary to other domestic Tax law matters.  

Observation: The suitability of ICAP will be further assessed, and the Submission Review Team may seek the input of the relevant treaty partners at its discretion. Although ICAP is highlighted as an alternative workstream in the Guidance, the practical implications of these references, given ICAP’s voluntary nature, remain uncertain. The Guidance sets the expectation that the review process for APA submissions should be completed within eight weeks from the filing date. 


Specific Considerations for APA Requests:  

The revised guidelines outline additional considerations for specific APA requests: 

  • Unilateral APAs: APMA will assess whether it is the most efficient or only option to achieve the desired Tax certainty. This evaluation includes considerations such as whether the Taxpayer is a CAP Taxpayer and has received advice from the IRS CAP team to pursue an APA. Additionally, if the request is part of a series of bilateral APAs, the IRS may need to price the transaction under the unilateral APA to facilitate related bilateral APAs with the same Taxpayer. Moreover, APMA will examine whether the unilateral APA could potentially lead to inappropriate base erosion or profit shifting in other relevant jurisdictions. These factors will be taken into account during the review process. 
  • APA Renewals: When evaluating APA renewal requests, APMA will assess various factors to determine their acceptance. These factors include assessing the ongoing risk of a Tax dispute, evaluating the potential for a streamlined resolution, and considering whether the relevant treaty partner is open to streamlined procedures. Additionally, APMA will review whether the Taxpayer has appropriately applied the previously agreed Transfer Pricing methodology (TPM) in the prior APAs. These considerations play a crucial role in determining the acceptance of APA renewal requests. 
  • APAs with rollback years: Upon reviewing APA applications with rollback years, the Submission Review Team will assess the suitability of accepting the requested rollback years. This evaluation will encompass a review of the limitations on assessment for those years, the impact on US Taxable income relating to the rollback years, and the Taxpayer’s rationale for not previously applying for an APA to cover those years. In cases where the rollback leads to a reduction in the Taxpayer’s US Taxable income, APMA will consider whether a mutual agreement procedure offers a more efficient approach to Tax administration. Additionally, APMA will take into consideration various factors regarding the rollback of the Transfer Pricing methodology, including concerns surrounding litigation and judicial decisions. 


A fresh perspective on the transformed APA Process: 

The evolving APA process in international Taxation has undergone significant changes with the recent release of comprehensive guidance by the Acting Director of IRS Treaty and Transfer Pricing Operations (TTPO). These changes are poised to reshape the APA process, fundamentally influencing how multinational enterprises and Tax professionals navigate the intricacies of Transfer Pricing compliance.  

To fully grasp the implications of these changes, it is crucial to approach them with a fresh perspective. In our exploration of the key provisions outlined in the guidance, we aim to delve deeper and shed light on the potential challenges and opportunities these changes present.  

One noteworthy aspect of the guidance is the heightened emphasis on prefiling communication. This inclusive approach encourages Taxpayers to engage proactively with the APMA division, establishing early dialogue and paving the way for a more streamlined APA process. By submitting prefiling memoranda, Taxpayers can take advantage of the pre-submission review, allowing for a thorough assessment of their proposed APAs and identification of potential obstacles.  

Moreover, the guidance introduces a more rigorous review process that ensures the proposed APAs meet the requirements of Rev. Proc. 2015-41 and address compliance concerns effectively. Tax professionals must navigate these new evaluation criteria meticulously. Factors such as the potential impact on prior Tax year compliance, suitability for alternative mechanisms like the International Compliance Assurance Program (ICAP), and the presence of common or complementary audits with foreign Tax administrations must be carefully considered.  

As Tax professionals adapt to the transformed APA process, staying informed about future developments becomes paramount. The forthcoming revised APA Revenue Procedure is expected to provide further clarity and guidelines for practitioners. It is crucial to monitor these updates closely, as they will play a pivotal role in successfully navigating the evolving landscape of APAs and fostering a robust and transparent Transfer Pricing environment.  



In conclusion, the release of the revised guidelines by the APMA reflects a proactive effort to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the APA process. The article offered a fresh perspective by delving deeper into the potential implications and challenges faced by Tax professionals. Adapting to these changes and staying updated on future developments will be critical for practitioners to successfully navigate the intricacies of Transfer Pricing compliance. By embracing these transformations, Tax professionals can contribute effectively to fostering a transparent and cooperative environment in international Taxation. 

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